Acetylcholine (ACh)


The first neurotrasmitters ever identitied was acetylcholine, a chemical transmitter in both the central and parasympathic nervous system in humans and many other organisms. It was discovered by Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi in 1914; they got the Nobel Prize in Psychology
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and Medicine 1936. THe Acetylcholine has very long formula which is CH3COOCH2CH2N+(CH3)3. It is effective deliverer of sodium ions, and it stimulate muslce contractions, and excites nerves. When you increases Acetycholine, it causes decreased a heart rate and increased the production of salvia. Acetylcholine plays the important roles in learning and memory and in sending message to muscles from motor nerves. Acetylcholine is transmitted at the nerve-muscle junction by cholinergic nerves. Cholinergic nerves are part of the parasympathic nervous system. Acetylcholine controlling nerve agent may prove to be cure, in disease like Alzeheimer's Disease.

Achetylcholine is released by several mechanisms including;
  • pre- and post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  • preganglionic sympathetic neurons
  • somatic neurons (controlling sensation and muscle contraction)
  • some CNS neurons


Non-debilitating decline in memory, referred to as Age-Associated Memory Impairment, or benign senescent forgetfulness, should not be confused with Alzheimer's Disease, a serious brain disorder, in which levels of ACh can drop by up to 90 percent. The gradual death of cholinergic brain cells results in
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a progressive and significant loss of cognitive and behavioral function. Actually, there is no cure for Alzheimer's Disease, but in the market they sell the 2 drugs to help to release the symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease. Both of 2 drugs are inhibit acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme which inactivates ACh at the nerve synapse. Inhibitating the enzyme prevents the normal breakdown of ACh, and it is the way to give back for the lowered concentrations of ACh chracteristics of Alzheimer's Disease.